Revised September 2010
Like editors, authors are expected to adhere to the highest standards of practice in research and reporting of research, and in writing and submission of manuscripts.
Any material submitted must be the author's or authors' own work; it should be original and not published or submitted for publication elsewhere.
To protect the integrity of authorship, only persons who have significantly contributed to the research or project and manuscript preparation should be listed as co-authors.
Authors should secure appropriate permissions for reuse of copyrighted material (e.g., photographs, figures).
All authors of articles submitted for publication assume full responsibility, within the limits of their professional competence, for the accuracy of their paper. Falsified research data are unacceptable.
Authors should properly cite the work of others as well as their own related work. Plagiarism (the use or presentation of the ideas or words of another person from existing sources without appropriate acknowledgment of that sources) is unacceptable. Authors bear full responsibility for ensuring the accuracy and completeness of citations and bibliographic items.
Authors are responsible for performing an appropriately comprehensive literature review in preparing their manuscript. They should not rely solely on e-indexes or on editors or peer reviewers to fill in any gaps.
Authors may list persons who made contributions to the work (but are not co-authors) in the Acknowledgment section along with their function or contribution.
Authors should list sources of support (grants, etc.) in the Acknowledgment section.
Authors are responsible for reviewing any editorial changes, including copy editing, to ensure that errors have not been introduced inadvertently. Typically some sort of final layout of an article is shared with the author or authors for this purpose.
Commentary: Authors are responsible for the quality and completeness of their work and should not assume that journals can provide comprehensive copy-editing or citation checking. They can expect that editors will spot check citations for accuracy and completeness. Where copy-editing is performed, it is often done by staff lacking detailed subject expertise and that it is possible for unintentional errors to be made. Thus it is crucial for authors to review all text, figures, tables, etc. to be sure that all remain accurate. Authors should not rely on editors and reviewers to rewrite articles, create abstracts catch errors, or provide statistical analysis. Where an author has not fully mastered writing in English, editors may require authors to work with (and pay) an outside editorial advisor.
Authors should provide adequate supporting evidence for editors and reviewers to assess the accuracy of the findings and the appropriateness of the intellectual inquiry process used (including any research design or methods) when they are presenting original research.
Authors should not submit manuscripts with any commercial intent. Authors should reveal to the editor any potential conflict of interest that may influence the manuscript's content or be affected by the publication of the manuscript.
Authors should disclose to the editor any commercial associations, contractual relations, proprietary considerations, or personal relationships that might pose a conflict of interest in connection with the manuscript.
Authors should disclose at the time of submission whether there has been any prior presentation or dissemination of the same or very similar material. Prior dissemination does not automatically disqualify a paper, but the editor should make a fully informed decision regarding the novelty of the work.
Authors should avoid redundant publication (publication of a paper that overlaps substantially with one already published, is under editorial consideration, has been published, or is in press).
Authors should not submit to the same or different journals more than one paper describing essentially the same research or project.
Authors should not submit the same manuscript for review to more than one journal at a time.
Commentary: In the Web era it is not possible to provide a universal rule regarding what counts as previous publication. Journal editors differ in their expectations. However, authors should note at the time of submission whether the work is based on thesis or dissertation research, any earlier presentations of the work at meetings or previous distribution through electronic means - e.g., as a preprint. These do not usually disqualify a work for submission, but it is important for editors to be aware of the state of ongoing dissemination of the work. In addition, the cover letter should state that the work has not been submitted elsewhere. When in doubt, the author should consult with the editor and err on the side of disclosing potentially irrelevant information.